Patient and public involvement in research

Representing a range of views and experiences: diversity

A key debate in patient involvement is how far people who get involved represent others. There are two main elements to this debate: one is about the diversity of the people who get involved, which is dealt with here, and the other is about how far we can or should expect any individual who gets involved to be ‘representative’ of other patients’ or carers’ views.


There was agreement that getting a more diverse range of people involved was important. The profile of people who get involved tends to be white, middle class, retired people, quite often with some form of health or research background. Having time to get involved, but also a certain level of education and confidence to engage with high-powered scientists, may make involvement easier for such people. 

Although Francesco, Peter and Andrew suggested more men needed to get involved, gender balance did not seem to be a major concern for most people we talked to. However, people identified many groups who are less likely to get involved. These included young people and people of working age; people from minority ethnic communities; different faith groups and communities; people of different sexualities; travellers; single parents; people with disabilities; those who have not had a university education; unemployed people and others living on benefits. Practical barriers (such as lack of time, caring responsibilities and costs are part of the problem, but also issues of power and discrimination towards marginalised or excluded groups.
Like Nadeem, Richard argued there was a risk of getting too focused on diversity for its own sake and how to involve people from specific groups, rather than how to improve the research: ‘And that's fine, and it's very important, especially when you're looking at ways of involving groups who aren't involved already. But ultimately, you involve patients in research to improve the quality of the research and to make that research benefit patients. And I do think there is a danger sometimes that the PPI industry gets lost.’ Margaret commented 'cancer is a great leveller and that differences between you and other people that might have seemed important before suddenly don't seem as important as your common shared experience of illness'.

Janice, Rosie and Carolyn pointed out that if our aim is to improve the design and relevance of research, we need to hear the perspectives of people whose health might be the subject of the research but who are less likely to volunteer. Several people commented that they preferred a term like ‘seldom heard’ rather than ‘hard to reach’, because it placed the responsibility on researchers to go out and listen rather than expect people to come to them. At the same time, felt that people have to want to be involved and you cannot force them.
Derek and Dave A pointed out that in the early days of patient involvement there were very few volunteers, who seemed to be trying to do everything. Looking back it seemed to them that there was now a much broader range of people being included, but there was still room for improvement.

Last reviewed July 2017.


Please use the form below to tell us what you think of the site. We’d love to hear about how we’ve helped you, how we could improve or if you have found something that’s broken on the site. We are a small team but will try to reply as quickly as possible.

Please note that we are unable to accept article submissions or offer medical advice. If you are affected by any of the issues covered on this website and need to talk to someone in confidence, please contact The Samaritans or your Doctor.

Make a Donation to

Find out more about how you can help us.

Send to a friend

Simply fill out this form and we'll send them an email